Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, but there are several subtypes with different clinicopathologic, viral, and outcome features. We are presenting 45 cases of a distinctive morphological variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma composed of mixed features of warty and basaloid carcinomas. This tumor was earlier recognized in a recent viral study and showed a high association with human papillomavirus infection. However, clinicopathologic features are not well known. In this multi-institutional study, patients mean age was 62 years. Most tumors (64%) invaded multiple anatomical compartments, including glans, coronal sulcus, and, especially, inner foreskin mucosa. Tumor size ranged from 2 to 12 cm (mean 5.5 cm). Three morphological patterns were recognized: (1) the most common, observed in two-thirds of the cases was that of a typical condylomatous tumor on surface and basaloid features in deep infiltrative nests; (2) in 15% of the cases, there were non-papillomatous invasive carcinoma nests with mixed basaloid and warty features; and (3) unusually, predominantly papillomatous. Invasion of penile erectile tissues was frequent, either corpus spongiosum or cavernosum (47% each). Tumors limited to lamina propria were rare. Most tumors were of high grade (89%). Vascular and perineural invasion were found in about one-half and one-quarter of cases, respectively. Associated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was identified in 19 cases and mostly showed basaloid, warty-basaloid, or warty features. Inguinal nodal metastases were found in 11/21 patients with groin dissections. Invasion of corpora cavernosa, high histological grade, and presence of vascular/perineural invasion were more prevalent in metastatic cases. In 21 patients followed, the cancer-specific mortality rate was 33% with a mean survival time of 2.8 years. Warty-basaloid carcinomas are morphologically distinctive human papillomavirus-related penile neoplasms that, such as basaloid carcinomas, are biologically more aggressive than typical warty carcinoma from which they should be distinguished.
- Basaloid carcinoma
- Human papillomavirus
- Penile intraepithelial neoplasia
- Penile squamous cell carcinoma
- Warty carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine