Walking impairment questionnaire improves mortality risk prediction models in a high-risk cohort independent of peripheral arterial disease status

Kevin T. Nead, Margaret Zhou, Roxanne Diaz Caceres, Jeffrey W. Olin, John P. Cooke, Nicholas J. Leeper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background-The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) is a subjective measure of patient-reported walking performance developed for peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study is to examine whether this simple tool can improve the predictive capacity of established risk models and whether the WIQ can be used in patients without peripheral arterial disease. Methods and Results-At baseline we assessed the walking distance, stair-climbing, and walking speed WIQ category scores among individuals who were undergoing coronary angiography. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years, there were 172 mortalities among 1417 study participants. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that all 3 WIQ categories independently predicted future all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, including among individuals without peripheral arterial disease (P<0.001). Compared with the cardiovascular risk factors model, we observed significantly increased risk discrimination with a C-index of 0.741 (change in C-index, 0.040; 95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.068) and 0.832 (change in C-index, 0.080; 95% confidence interval, 0.034-0.126) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. Examination of risk reclassification using the net reclassification improvement index showed a 48.4% (P<0.001) improvement for all-cause mortality and a 77.4% (P<0.001) improvement for cardiovascular mortality compared with the cardiovascular risk factors model. Conclusions-All 3 WIQ categories independently predicted future all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Importantly, we found that this subjective measure of walking ability could be extended to patients without peripheral arterial disease. The addition of the WIQ scores to established cardiovascular risk models significantly improved risk discrimination and reclassification, suggesting broad clinical use for this simple, inexpensive test.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-261
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

Keywords

  • High-risk populations
  • Mortality
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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