There are several lung diseases that lead to alterations in regional lung mechanics, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. Such alterations can lead to localized underventilation of the affected areas resulting in the overdistension of the surrounding healthy regions. They can also lead to the surrounding alveoli expanding unevenly or distorting. Therefore, the quantification of the regional deformation in the lungs offers insights into identifying the regions at risk of lung injury. Although few recent studies have developed image processing techniques to quantify the regional volumetric deformation in the lung from dynamic imaging, the presence and extent of distortional deformation in the lung, and its correlation with volumetric deformation, remain poorly understood. In this study, we present a method that uses the four-dimensional displacement field obtained from image registration to quantify both regional volumetric and distortional deformation in the lung. We used dynamic computed tomography scans in a healthy rat over the course of one respiratory cycle in free breathing. Non-rigid image registration was performed to quantify voxel displacement during respiration. The deformation gradient was calculated using the displacement field and its determinant was used to quantify regional volumetric deformation. Regional distortion was calculated as the ratio of maximum to minimum principal stretches using the isochoric part of the Cauchy green tensor. We found an inverse correlation between volumetric strains and distortion indicating that poorly expanding alveoli tend to experience larger distortion. The combination of regional volumetric strains and distortion may serve as high-fidelity biomarkers to identify the regions at risk of most adverse lung injuries.