Transformed astrocytes in the most aggressive form cause glioblastoma, the most common cancer in the central nervous system with high mortality. The physiological electric field by neuronal local field potentials and tissue polarity may guide the infiltration of glioblastoma cells through the electrotaxis process. However, microenvironments with multiplex gradients are difficult to create. In this work, we have developed a hybrid microfluidic platform to study glioblastoma electrotaxis in controlled microenvironments with high throughput quantitative analysis by machine learning-powered single cell tracking software. By equalizing the hydrostatic pressure difference between inlets and outlets of the microchannel, uniform single cells can be seeded reliably inside the microdevice. The electrotaxis of two glioblastoma models, T98G and U-251MG, requires an optimal laminin-containing extracellular matrix and exhibits opposite directional and electro-alignment tendencies. Calcium signaling is a key contributor in glioblastoma pathophysiology but its role in glioblastoma electrotaxis is still an open question. Anodal T98G electrotaxis and cathodal U-251MG electrotaxis require the presence of extracellular calcium cations. U-251MG electrotaxis is dependent on the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) and T98G is dependent on the R-type VGCC. U-251MG electrotaxis and T98G electrotaxis are also mediated by A-type (rapidly inactivating) voltage-gated potassium channels and acid-sensing sodium channels. The involvement of multiple ion channels suggests that the glioblastoma electrotaxis is complex and patient-specific ion channel expression can be critical to develop personalized therapeutics to fight against cancer metastasis. The hybrid microfluidic design and machine learning-powered single cell analysis provide a simple and flexible platform for quantitative investigation of complicated biological systems.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering