Venous anatomy of the left ventricular summit: Therapeutic implications for ethanol infusion

Liliana Tavares, Stephanie Fuentes, Adi Lador, Akanibo Da-wariboko, Sufen Wang, Paul A. Schurmann, Amish S. Dave, Miguel Valderrábano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: Venous ethanol ablation (VEA) is effective for treatment of left ventricular (LV) summit (LVS) arrhythmias. The LVS venous anatomy is poorly understood and has inconsistent nomenclature. Objective: The purpose of this study was to delineate the LVS venous anatomy by selective venography and 3-dimensional (3D) mapping during VEA and by venous-phase coronary computed tomographic angiography (vCTA). Methods: We analyzed (1) LVS venograms and 3D maps of 53 patients undergoing VEA; and (2) 3D reconstructions of 52 vCTAs, tracing LVS veins. Results: Angiography identified the following LVS veins: (1) LV annular branch of the great cardiac vein (GCV) (19/53); (2) septal (rightward) branches of the anterior ventricular vein (AIV) (53/53); and (3) diagonal branches of the AIV (51/53). Collateral connections between LVS veins and outflow, conus, and retroaortic veins were common. VEA was delivered to target arrhythmias in 38 of 53 septal, 6 of 53 annular, and 2 of 53 diagonal veins. vCTA identified LVS veins (range 1–5) in a similar distribution. GCV–AIV transition could either form an angle close to the left main artery bifurcation (n = 16; 88° ± 13°) or cut diagonally (n = 36; 133°±12°) (P ≤.001). Twenty-one patients had LV annular vein. In 28 patients only septal LVS veins were visualized in vCTA, in 2 patients only diagonal veins and in 22 patients both septal and diagonal veins were seen. In 39 patients the LVS veins reached the outflow tracts and their vicinity. Conclusion: We provide a systematic atlas and nomenclature of LVS veins related to arrhythmogenic substrates. vCTA can be useful for noninvasive evaluation of LVS veins before ethanol ablation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1557-1565
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Rhythm
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Ablation
  • Computed tomography
  • Coronary venous system
  • Ethanol
  • Left ventricular summit
  • Ventricular arrhythmia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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