Vascular cognitive disorders and depression after first-ever stroke: The Fogarty-Mexico stroke cohort

Antonio Arauz, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Ana Luisa Sosa, Mireya Chávez, Francisco Paz, Margarita González, Juliana Coral, Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta, Gustavo C. Román

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38 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose: Stroke is the major cause of vascular behavior and cognitive disorders worldwide. In developing countries, there is a dearth of information regarding the public health magnitude of stroke. The aim of the Fogarty-Mexico cohort was to assess the prevalence of vascular behavioral and cognitive disorders, ranging from mild vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) to vascular dementia (VaD), in a cohort of acute first-ever symptomatic stroke patients in Mexico. Methods: A total of 165 consecutive, first-ever stroke patients admitted to the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City, were included in the cohort. Patients were eligible if they had an ischemic stroke, primary intracerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Stroke diagnosis required the presence of an acute focal deficit lasting more than 24 h, confirmed by a corresponding lesion on CT/MRI. Stroke severity was established with the NIH Stroke Scale. The pre-stroke functional status was determined by the IQCODE. Three months after the occurrence of stroke, 110 survivor patients returned for follow-up and were able to undergo functional outcome (modified Rankin scale, Barthel index), along with neurological, psychiatric, neuropsychological, laboratory, and imaging assessments. We compared depression, demographic, and clinical and imaging features between patients with and without dementia, and between patients with VCI and those with intact cognition. Results: Of the 110 patients (62% men, mean age 56 ± 17.8, education 7.7 ± 5.2 years) 93 (84%) had ischemic strokes, 14 (13%) intracerebral hemorrhage, and 3 (3%) CVT. The main risk factors were hypertension (50%), smoking (40%), hypercholesterolemia (29%), hyperhomocysteinemia (24%), and diabetes (22%). Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations demonstrated post-stroke depression in 56%, VCI in 41%, and VaD in 12%; 17% of the latter had pre-stroke functional impairment (IQCODE >3.5). Cognitive deficits included executive function in 69%, verbal memory in 49%, language in 38%, perception in 36%, and attention in 38%. Executive dysfunction occurred in 36% of non-demented subjects, 65% of them with mild-moderate deficits in daily living activities. Female gender (p ≤ 0.054), older age (mean age 65.6 years vs. 49.3, p < 0.001), diabetes (p ≤ 0.004), illiteracy and lower education (p ≤ 0.001), and PSD (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in VCI-VaD compared with cognitively intact post-stroke subjects. We could not demonstrate an association with lesion site and distribution of the cognitive deficits. Conclusions: The Fogarty-Mexico cohort recruited relatively young acute stroke patients, compared with other Mexican stroke cohorts. PSD and VCI occurred frequently but prevalence of VaD (12%) was lower than expected. A high prevalence of treatable stroke risk factors suggests that preventive interventions are advisable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-289
Number of pages6
JournalCerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 22 2014


  • Mexico
  • Post-stroke depression
  • Stroke
  • Vascular cognitive disorders
  • Vascular cognitive impairment
  • Vascular dementia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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