Purpose To expand understanding of presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty-six eyes of 23 patients. Methods The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) and the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) formed a joint task force to define clinical characteristics of HORV and to study its prevalence, cause, treatment, and outcomes. An online registry was established on both societies' web sites. Surveys were e-mailed to members of both societies soliciting cases of suspected HORV. A literature search was performed to uncover additional cases. Main Outcome Measures Historical data including intraoperative characteristics, images, treatment regimens, and visual and anatomic outcomes. Results Characteristic findings of HORV included unremarkable postoperative day 1 undilated examination, delayed-onset painless vision loss, mild anterior chamber and vitreous inflammation, sectoral retinal hemorrhages in areas of ischemia, and predilection for venules and peripheral involvement. Based on predetermined diagnostic criteria, 36 eyes of 23 patients were diagnosed with HORV. All eyes received intraocular vancomycin via intracameral bolus (33/36), via intravitreal injection (1/36), or through the irrigation bottle (2/36). Patients sought treatment with HORV 1 to 21 days after surgery or intravitreal injection. Visual results usually were poor: 22 of 36 eyes (61%) had 20/200 or worse visual acuity and 8 of 36 eyes (22%) had no light perception (NLP). Neovascular glaucoma developed in 20 of 36 eyes (56%). Seven eyes received additional intravitreal vancomycin after surgery; 5 of these 7 eyes had NLP visual acuity at the most recent examination. Three eyes received intravitreal corticosteroids and had final visual acuities of 20/40, 20/70, and hand movements. Conclusions Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis is a rare, potentially devastating condition that can develop after cataract surgery or intraocular injection. All cases in this series were associated with intraocular vancomycin. Disease course and findings suggest that HORV is caused by a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to vancomycin. Early treatment with corticosteroids likely is beneficial. Subsequently, anti–vascular endothelial growth factor injections and panretinal photocoagulation are important to prevent neovascular glaucoma, a common complication. Avoidance of additional intravitreal vancomycin is recommended if HORV is suspected.
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