Urological Education in United States Medical Schools: Where Are We Now and How Can We Do Better?

Jessica E. Kreshover, Alex J. Vanni, Kevan M. Sternberg, Naeem Bhojani, Kathleen C. Kobashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction:While urological complaints increase in aging populations and conditions commonly require management by multiple physician specialty types, exposure to formal urological education in United States medical schools is limited and has been decreasing over time. We aim to update the current status of urological education in the United States curriculum and delve further into the subject matter being taught and the type and timing of this education.Methods:An 11-question survey was developed to describe the current status of urological education. The survey was distributed using Survey Monkey to the American Urological Association's medical student listserv in November 2021. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize survey findings.Results:Of 879 invitations sent, 173 responded (20%). Most (112/173, 65%) of respondents were in their fourth year. Only 4 (2%) reported that their school had a required clinical urology rotation. Kidney stones (98%) and urinary tract infections (100%) were the most frequent topics taught. The least exposure included infertility (20%), urological emergencies (19%), bladder drainage (17%), and erectile dysfunction (13%). Videos and case vignettes were the preferred learning modalities and the majority (84%) of respondents were familiar with the American Urological Association's medical student curriculum material.Conclusions:The majority of United States medical schools do not have a required clinical urology rotation and some core urological topics are not taught at all. Future incorporation of urological educational material through video and case vignette learning may be the best opportunity to provide exposure to clinical topics that will commonly be encountered regardless of chosen medical discipline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-586
Number of pages6
JournalUrology Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022


  • curriculum
  • education, medical
  • urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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