Objectives. To review our experience with ureteroscopy in treating patients with renal calculi in anomalous kidneys and to evaluate the efficacy of this approach. Methods. Eight patients with renal calculi in anomalous kidneys who were managed by ureteroscopic procedures were identified. Demographic information, preoperative stone burden, operative information (ureteroscope size, lithotrite used, instruments used, duration of surgery, complications, stenting), follow-up imaging, and complications were obtained from the medical record. This information was analyzed to determine the most frequently used instruments and stone-free rates. Results. Our cohort consisted of 4 patients with horseshoe kidneys (HSK) and 4 patients with pelvic kidneys (PK) (6 male, 2 female, mean age, 50.6 years). The average preoperative stone burden of the 11 treated calculi was 1.4 cm, with 5 stones located in the renal pelvis, 2 in the upper pole, and 4 in lower pole calyces. A 7.5F flexible ureteroscope, holmium laser lithotripsy, and nitinol baskets and graspers were used in all patients. Six patients had complete clearance of the stone on postoperative imaging (75% HSK, 75% PK), with 88% of patients asymptomatic after their procedure. No patients required additional surgical intervention. Conclusions. Flexible ureteroscopy with holmium laser lithotripsy and the use of nitinol baskets and graspers provides a reasonable alternative to shock wave lithotripsy in the management of patients harboring renal calculi in anomalous kidneys. In addition, ureteroscopy can be considered a primary option for managing select patients with symptomatic stones in PKs before a percutaneous surgical approach.
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