Unifying mechanisms of action of the anticancer activities of triterpenoids and synthetic analogs

Stephen H. Safe, Paul L. Prather, Lisa K. Brents, Gayathri Chadalapaka, Indira Jutooru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

Triterpenoids such as betulinic acid (BA) and synthetic analogs of oleanolic acid [2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO)] and glycyrrhetinic acid [2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18β-oleana-1,12-dien-30-oc acid (CDODA)] are potent anticancer agents that exhibit antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities. Although their effects on multiple pathways have been reported, unifying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Studies in this laboratory have now demonstrated that several triterpenoids including BA and some derivatives, celastrol, methyl ursolate, β-boswellic acid derivatives, and the synthetic analogs CDDO, CDODA and their esters decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and several pro-oncogenic Spregulated genes in multiple cancer cell lines. The mechanisms of this response are both compound- and cell context-dependent and include activation of both proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. Triterpenoid-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has now been characterized as an important proteasome-independent pathway for downregulation of Sp transcription factors. ROS decreases expression of microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and miR-20a/miR-17-5p and this results in the induction of the transcriptional "Sprepressors" ZBTB10 and ZBTB4, respectively, which in turn downregulate Sp and Sp-regulated genes. Triterpenoids also activate or deactive nuclear receptors and G-protein coupled receptors, and these pathways contribute to their antitumorigenic activity and may also play a role in targeting Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 which are highly overexpressed in multiple cancers and appear to be important for maintaining the cancer phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1211-1220
Number of pages10
JournalAnti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Volume12
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Downregulation
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Sp transcription factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research

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