Understanding Patient Beliefs in Using Technology to Manage Diabetes: Path Analysis Model from a National Web-Based Sample

Karim Zahed, Ranjana Mehta, Madhav Erraguntla, Khalid Qaraqe, Farzan Sasangohar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: With 425 million individuals globally living with diabetes, it is critical to support the self-management of this life-threatening condition. However, adherence and engagement with existing technologies are inadequate and need further research.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop an integrated belief model that helps identify the significant constructs in predicting intention to use a diabetes self-management device for the detection of hypoglycemia.

METHODS: Adults with type 1 diabetes living in the United States were recruited through Qualtrics to take a web-based questionnaire that assessed their preferences for a device that monitors their tremors and alerts them of the onset of hypoglycemia. As part of this questionnaire, a section focused on eliciting their response to behavioral constructs from the Health Belief Model, Technology Acceptance Model, and others.

RESULTS: A total of 212 eligible participants responded to the Qualtrics survey. Intention to use a device for the self-management of diabetes was well predicted (R 2=0.65; F 12,199=27.19; P<.001) by 4 main constructs. The most significant constructs were perceived usefulness (β=.33; P<.001) and perceived health threat (β=.55; P<.001) followed by cues to action (β=.17; P<.001) and a negative effect from resistance to change (β=-.19; P<.001). Older age (β=.025; P<.001) led to an increase in their perceived health threat.

CONCLUSIONS: For individuals to use such a device, they need to perceive it as useful, perceive diabetes as life-threatening, regularly remember to perform actions to manage their condition, and exhibit less resistance to change. The model predicted the intention to use a diabetes self-management device as well, with several constructs found to be significant. This mental modeling approach can be complemented in future work by field-testing with physical prototype devices and assessing their interaction with the device longitudinally.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere41501
Pages (from-to)e41501
JournalJMIR Diabetes
StatePublished - May 3 2023


  • health technology
  • hypoglycemia
  • intention
  • mobile app
  • psychological models
  • self-management
  • tremor
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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