Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules, including programmed death-1 (PD-1), PD ligand-1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, has become prominent in the treatment of many types of cancer. However, a significant number of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) develop immune-related adverse events (irAEs). irAEs can affect any organ system, and although most are clinically manageable, irAEs can result in mortality or long-term morbidity. Factors that can predict irAEs remain elusive. Understanding the etiology of ICI-induced irAEs and ways to limit these adverse events are needed. In this review, we provide basic science and clinical insights on the mechanisms responsible for ICI efficacy and ICI-induced irAEs. We further provide insights into approaches that may uncouple irAEs from the ability of ICIs to kill tumor cells.
- Clinical Medicine
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