A conventional TEM/STEM has been used for the fabrication of ∼ 10 nm–size structures by electron‐beam lithography. The electron microscope provides a versatile tool for studying the lithographic process with control of the beam energy, current, and profile combined with the ability to image both the probe and fabricated structures. Straightforward techniques are described for generating ultrasmall structures for physics and device experiments on both bulk substrates and on thin films. New resist processes and the effects of electron‐beam energy as studied by these techniques are discussed.
- Electron‐beam lithography
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