Ulcerative proctitis, a nonspecific inflammatory process involving the rectal mucosa but not the mucosa of the sigmoid or more proximal colon, is often diagnosed mistakenly as ulcerative colitis because of similarity in gross and microscopic appearances. Ulcerative proctitis, however, is more benign, symptoms are limited to the rectum (bleeding), extracolonic complications are rare, and there is little if any malignant potential. Prognosis is excellent. Review of 50 cases of ulcerative proctitis showed a relation to emotional tension in over one third of the cases. Effective treatment includes hydrocortisone enemas, salicylazosulfapyridine, and especially reassurance of the limited and benign nature of the disease.
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