Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological condition defined by (1) an urge to move the legs, (2) worsening with inactivity, (3) improvement with movement, and (4) worsening at night. It effects women more than men and is most common in Northern Europeans. There is a strong genetic component, but other conditions including systemic iron deficiency, renal failure, and pregnancy also cause RLS symptoms. The main pathology is reduction in brain iron stores, even in the setting of normal serum iron measures. First-line treatments are dopamine agonists and alpha-2-delta blockers. Additional treatments include opioids and intravenous iron.