Estrogens and glucocorticoids often act in opposition to regulate physiological responses. We investigated whether this might reflect the opposing actions of hormone-bound receptors on target genes regulated by the AP-1 response element. We performed a series of transfection experiments in which transcriptional activation, mediated by the AP-1 response element, was reflected in reporter gene activity. As previously described, we found that estrogens stimulate, whereas the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits, transcription through a model promoter from the collagenase gene (-73 to +63). This promoter bears a consensus AP-1 response element. When HeLa cells were treated with both estradiol and Dex, the steroids counteracted each other's transcriptional effects. The amount of transfected estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors (ER and GR) determined the extent to which Dex blunted estrogen stimulation or estrogen prevented Dex inhibition. The ER/GR interaction was observed both in the presence of estradiol and tamoxifen, which has previously been shown to have estrogen-like action at an AP-1 response clement. The AP-1 family member c-Jun enhanced Dex inhibition and estradiol stimulation of transcriptional activation. c-Fos potentiated the effect of cotransfected c-Jun on estradiol stimulation but not Dex inhibition. The pattern of steroid responses was retained in the presence of the c-Jun activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. However, estradiol stimulation was lost in the presence of the c-Jun activator tumor necrosis factor-α. The ER/GR/AP-1 response element interaction was present, not only in a cell line originally derived from a uterine cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), but also in a cell line derived from the hypothalamus (GT1-1). Lastly, both progesterone receptor types A and B also interacted with the ER at the AP-1 site. These data indicate that opposing steroid influences can be mediated at the level of transcription through the AP-1 site and suggest that the integration of hormone action at this response element may underlie some of the opposing actions of estrogens and glucocorticoids or progestins on physiological responses.
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