7 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to demonstrate the setup and feasibility of transcarotid access for remote robotic neurointerventions in a cadaveric model. METHODS The interventional procedures were performed in a fresh-frozen cadaveric model using an endovascular robotic system and a robotic angiography imaging system. A prototype remote, robotic-drive system with an ethernet-based network connectivity and audio-video communication system was used to drive the robotic system remotely. After surgical exposure of the common carotid artery in a cadaveric model, an 8-Fr arterial was inserted and anchored. A telescopic guiding sheath and catheter/microcatheter combination was modified to account for the “workable” length with the CorPath GRX robotic system using transcarotid access. RESULTS To simulate a carotid stenting procedure, a 0.014-inch wire was advanced robotically to the extracranial internal carotid artery. After confirming the wire position and anatomy by angiography, a self-expandable rapid exchange nitinol stent was loaded into the robotic cassette, advanced, and then deployed robotically across the carotid bifurcation. To simulate an endovascular stroke recanalization procedure, a 0.014-inch wire was advanced into the proximal middle cerebral artery with robotic assistance. A modified 2.95-Fr delivery microcatheter (Velocity, Penumbra Inc.) was loaded into the robotic cassette and positioned. After robotic retraction of the wire, it was switched manually to a mechanical thrombectomy device (Solitaire X, Medtronic). The stentriever was then advanced robotically into the end of the micro-catheter. After robotic unfolding and short microcatheter retraction, the microcatheter was manually removed and the stent retriever was extracted using robotic assistance. During intravascular navigation, the device position was guided by 2D angiography and confirmed by 3D cone-beam CT angiography. CONCLUSIONS In this proof-of-concept cadaver study, the authors demonstrated the setup and technical feasibility of transcarotid access for remote robot-assisted neurointerventions such as carotid artery stenting and mechanical thrombectomy. Using transcarotid access, catheter length modifications were necessary to achieve “working length” compatibility with the current-generation CorPath GRX robotic system. While further improvements in dedicated robotic solutions for neurointerventions and next-generation thrombectomy devices are necessary, the transcarotid approach provides a direct, relatively rapid access route to the brain for delivering remote stroke treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE18
Pages (from-to)E18
JournalNeurosurgical focus
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Direct carotid access
  • Endovascular robot
  • Remote interventions
  • Remote mechanical thrombectomy
  • Remote neuro-intervention
  • Remote stroke intervention
  • Trans-carotid approach
  • Robotic Surgical Procedures
  • Humans
  • Thrombectomy/methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Endovascular Procedures/methods
  • Robotics
  • Stents
  • Cadaver
  • Stroke/surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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