Background Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is an advanced local excision platform that helps overcome technical limitations and morbidity associated with other resection methods. Our goal was to review the indications and outcomes of TAMIS in a large series. Study Design A review of a prospective database identified patients who underwent TAMIS from 2010 to 2014. Demographic, perioperative, short-term outcomes, and recurrence data were analyzed. Results There were 75 patients with 76 lesions analyzed. Mean age was 64.0 years (SD 11.6 years) and mean BMI was 27.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.7 kg/m2). Median American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 2 (range 1 to 4). There were 59 benign (77.3%) and 17 malignant (22.7%) lesions: 6 pT0, 6 pT1, 4 pT2, and 1 pT3. Median lesion distance from the anal verge was 10 cm (range 6 to 16 cm). Mean operative time was 76.0 minutes (SD 36.1 minutes). Three patients had intraperitoneal entry; all were closed transanally, but 2 had temporary diverting ileostomies fashioned to ensure healing. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0 to 6). One patient had a fragmented lesion (1.3%). Five patients had positive margins: 2 in palliative pT2 resections, and 3 in pT1, pT2, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. They were managed with radical resection (pT1 and pT2 lesions) and surveillance/medical oncology (GIST). Postoperatively, 3 patients had complications (bleeding, rectal stricture, and recto-vaginal fistula), and all were managed nonoperatively. After median follow-up of 39.5 months (range 10.5 to 65.3 months), 1 pT1 patient with negative margins developed a local recurrence and underwent salvage APR. Conclusions Transanal minimally invasive surgery is a viable option for excision of benign or early stage rectal masses, with mid-term oncologic outcomes comparable to those of radical resection. Further, TAMIS minimizes the morbidity and can allow more patients to benefit from the minimally invasive approach.
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