Background: Neuroretinitis is a distinct clinical entity consisting of moderate to severe visual loss, optic nerve head edema, macular exudate in a stellate pattern, and variable vitreous inflammation. Although the etiology is usually postviral or idiopathic, an acute infectious cause occasionally is demonstrated. Methods: Five juvenile or young adult patients with neuroretinitis are presented with serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four of the five patients were treated with systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids; one patient was not treated. Results: With a mean follow-up period of 50 months, visual acuity returned to 20/25 or better in four patients, with one patient regaining visual acuity of 20/60. Two patients had one or more recurrent episodes of neuroretinitis, distinguishing toxoplasmosis from idiopathic neuroretinitis, which is usually a monophasic illness. Conclusion: Toxoplasmosis infection is a rare, but potentially treatable, form of neuroretinitis and should be included in the differential diagnosis of 'Leber's idiopathic stellate retinopathy.'
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