Total Joint Arthroplasty in Patients With Schizophrenia: How Much Does It Increase the Risk of Complications?

J. Joseph Gholson, Nicholas A. Bedard, S. Blake Dowdle, Timothy S. Brown, Yubo Gao, John J. Callaghan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: Mental illness is an often overlooked comorbidity in the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of schizophrenia on the outcomes of TJA. Methods: The nationwide inpatient sample was used to identify a cohort of 505,840 patients having total hip arthroplasty between 2009 and 2012, of which 953 patients (0.2%) had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the impact of schizophrenia on short-term medical and surgical complications. Differences in length of stay and discharge disposition were also compared. Results: Schizophrenic patients are 15 times more likely to have pulmonary insufficiency after surgery (odds ratio [OR] 15.1, P =.0133). Patients were 11 times more likely to have mental status changes (OR 11.1, P =.0002), 3 times more likely to have a mechanical complication of the implant (OR 3.2, P =.0031), and 2 times more likely to require a transfusion (OR 2.4, P <.0001). All-cause medical (OR 2.2, P <.0001) and surgical (OR 1.5, P <.0001) complications were higher in schizophrenic patients. Patients stayed 0.63 days longer in the hospital (P <.0001), and were 3 times more likely to discharge to a facility (OR 2.7, P <.0001). Conclusions: TJA in patients with schizophrenia had markedly increased complications. Particularly, pulmonary complications, mechanical complications of the implant, mental status changes, and transfusion rates were higher. Future risk adjustment models should include schizophrenia as a major contributor to increased complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2082-2086
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • nationwide inpatient sample (NIS)
  • pulmonary insufficiency
  • schizophrenia
  • short-term complications
  • total hip arthroplasty
  • total knee arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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