Cross-interference (squelching) among nuclear receptors has been proposed to reflect the titration of coactivators that bind the receptors in a hormone-dependent manner. We have tested whether the coactivators are the only target titrated during squelching of one receptor by another, or whether proteins needed for coactivator function are titrated as well. That the coactivators are indeed one target of squelching is apparent. The isolated ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ER-LBD) squelches transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) only when the LBD is bound to ligands that promote coactivator interactions and only when regions of the LBD that promote coactivator interactions are undisturbed. Furthermore, the ER-LBD and the TR compete in vitro for the related p160 coactivators, SRC1a and GRIP1 (glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1), or the putative corepressor, RIP140. Finally TR action becomes more potent when coactivator levels are raised. Nonetheless, supplying excess SRC1a or GRIP1 does not abolish squelching by the ER. In fact, squelching becomes even more severe when coactivators are abundant. Supplying combinations of coactivators from the p160 class and the CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 class makes squelching most severe. Elevated RIP140 inhibits TR action, but also protects the residual TR action from squelching by the ER-LBD. We conclude that ER-LBD squelches TR both by titrating p160-CBP coactivators and additionally by cooperating with the coactivators to titrate a second factor. The second factor would be needed by the TR for coactivator-mediated transcriptional stimulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology