The functions of the liver X receptors (LXRs) are not well documented in adipose tissue. We demonstrate here that expression of the LXRα gene is highly induced in vivo and in vitro in mouse and human adipocytes in the presence of the synthetic LXR agonist T0901317. This autoregulation is caused by an identified LXR-responsive element motif in the mouse LXRα promoter, which is conserved in the human LXRα promoter. Using different LXR-deficient mice, we demonstrate that the basal expression level of LXRα is increased in LXRβ-/- mice, whereas the basal expression level of LXRβ is unchanged in LXRα-/- mice. The two LXRs can compensate for each other in mediating ligand-activated regulation of LXR target genes involved in lipid homeostasis in adipose tissue. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, as well as apolipoprotein E (apoE) are induced in vivo by T0901317 in wild-type, LXRα-/- or LXRβ-/- mice but not in LXRα-/-β-/- mice. Although SREBP-1 and ABCG1 are induced in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, the apoE, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), and LXRα genes are specifically induced only in adipose tissue. We suggest that an important aspect of LXRα autoregulation in adipose tissue may be to increase the level of LXRα over a threshold level necessary to induce the expression of certain target genes.
- Apolipoprotein E
- ATP binding cassette
- Lipid homeostasis
- Liver X receptor
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ
- Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1
ASJC Scopus subject areas