In the United States, more than 80% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms are treated by endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). The endovascular approach warrants good early results, but adequate follow-up imaging after EVAR is imperative to maintain long-term positive outcomes. Potential graft-related complications are graft migration, infection, fraction, and endoleaks, with the last one being the most common. The most frequently used imaging after EVAR is computed tomography angiography (CTA) and duplex ultrasound. Dynamic, time-resolved computed tomography angiography (d-CTA) is a reasonably new technique to characterize the endoleaks. Multiple scans are done sequentially around the endograft during acquisition that grants good visualization of the contrast passage and graft-related complications. This high diagnostic accuracy of d-CTA can be implemented into therapy via image fusion and reduce additional radiation and contrast material exposure. This protocol describes the technical aspects of this modality: patient selection, preliminary image review, d-CTA scan acquisition, image processing, qualitative and quantitative endoleak characterization. The steps of integrating dynamic CTA into intra-operative fluoroscopy using 2D-3D fusion-imaging to facilitate targeted embolization are also demonstrated. In conclusion, time-resolved, dynamic CTA is an ideal modality for endoleak characterization with additional quantitative analysis. It can reduce radiation and iodinated contrast material exposure during endoleak treatment by guiding interventions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)