Thrombospondins (TSPs) are multifaceted proteins that contribute to physiologic as well as pathologic conditions. Due to their multiple receptor-binding domains, TSPs display both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive qualities and are thus essential components of the extracellular matrix. Known for their antiangiogenic capacity, TSPs are an important component of the tumor microenvironment. The N- and C-terminal domains of TSP are, respectively, involved in cell adhesion and spreading, an important feature of wound healing as well as cancer cell migration. Previously known for the activation of TGF-β to promote tumor growth and inflammation, TSP-1 has recently been found to be transcriptionally induced by TGF-β, implying the presence of a possible feedback loop. TSP-1 is an endogenous inhibitor of T cells and also mediates its immunosuppressive effects via induction of Tregs. Given the diverse roles of TSPs in the tumor microenvironment, many therapeutic strategies have utilized TSP-mimetic peptides or antibody blockade as anti-metastatic approaches. This chapter discusses the diverse structural domains, functional implications, and anti-metastatic therapies in the context of the role of TSP in the tumor microenvironment.