Thrombolysis beyond 4.5 h in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Mark R. Etherton, Rajan R. Gadhia, Lee H. Schwamm

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: The purpose of this article is to review the current approaches using neuroimaging techniques to expand eligibility for intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients with stroke of unknown symptom onset. Recent Findings: In recent years, several randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown neuroimaging-guided approaches to be feasible in determining eligibility for alteplase beyond 4.5 h from last known well, and efficacious for reducing disability. DWI-FLAIR mismatch on MRI is an effective tool to identify stroke lesions less than 4.5 h in onset in patients with stroke of unknown symptom onset. Additionally, an automated perfusion-based approach, assessing for a disproportionate amount of salvageable tissue, is effective in identifying patients likely to benefit from late window alteplase treatment. Summary: In patients with stroke of unknown symptom onset, an individualized approach using neuroimaging to determine time of stroke onset or presence of salvageable brain tissue is feasible in the acute setting and associated with improved long-term outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number35
JournalCurrent Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020


  • Ischemic stroke
  • Neuroimaging
  • Systems of care
  • Thrombolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology


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