Three-dimensional virtual-reality surgical planning and soft-tissue prediction for orthognathic surgery

James Xia, Horace H.S. Ip, Nabil Samman, Helena T.F. Wong, Jaime Gateno, Dongfeng Wang, Richie W.K. Yeung, Christy S.B. Kot, Henk Tideman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


Complex maxillofacial malformations continue to present challenges in analysis and correction beyond modern technology. The purpose of this paper is to present a virtual-reality workbench for surgeons to perform virtual orthognathic surgical planning and soft-tissue prediction in three dimensions. A resulting surgical planning system, i.e., three-dimensional virtual-reality surgical-planning and soft-tissue prediction for orthognathic surgery, consists of four major stages: computed tomography (CT) data post-processing and reconstruction, three-dimensional (3-D) color facial soft-tissue model generation, virtual surgical planning and simulation, soft-tissue-change preoperative prediction. The surgical planning and simulation are based on a 3-D CT reconstructed bone model, whereas the soft-tissue prediction is based on color texture-mapped and individualized facial soft-tissue model. Our approach is able to provide a quantitative osteotomy-simulated bone model and prediction of postoperative appearance with photorealistic quality. The prediction appearance can be visualized from any arbitrary viewing point using a low-cost personal-computer-based system. This cost-effective solution can be easily adopted in any hospital for daily use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-107
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2001


  • Maxillofacial deformity
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Soft-tissue-change prediction
  • Three-dimensional surgical planning and simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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