Three-Dimensional Surgical Planning for Maxillary and Midface Distraction Osteogenesis

Jaime Gateno, John F. Teichgraeber, James J. Xia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Computerized surgical planning protocols for distraction osteogenesis are still in their rudimentary phase. The authors have developed a system to plan distraction osteogenesis in craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery that uses three-dimensional computed tomography scans and computer simulation in a virtual reality environment. This involves the creation of a three-dimensional bone model of the craniofacial skeleton, which incorporates virtual globes. Virtual osteotomies are performed on the bone model and the movements of the bone segments are simulated. The program generates a recipe for the linear and the angular changes necessary to achieve the desired outcome. The purpose of this article is to present this surgical planning process and discuss its use in maxillary and midface distraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)833-839
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2003


  • Computer-assisted
  • Distraction osteogenesis
  • Maxilla
  • Midface
  • Surgical planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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