Cardiovascular 3-dimensional printing refers to the fabrication of patients' specific cardiac anatomic replicas based on volumetric imaging data sets obtained by echocardiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. It enables advanced visualization and enhanced anatomic and sometimes hemodynamic understanding and also improves procedural planning and allows interventional simulation. Also, it is helpful in communication with patients and trainees. These key advantages have led to its broad use in the field of cardiology ranging from congenital to vascular and valvular disease, particularly in structural heart interventions, where many emerging technologies are being developed and tested. This review summarizes the process of 3-dimensional printing and the workflow from imaging acquisition to model generation and discusses the cardiac applications of 3-dimensional printing focusing on its use in percutaneous structural interventions, where procedural planning now commonly relies on 3-dimensional printed models.
- heart disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine