Background - The feasibility of measuring cavitary electrograms using a noncontact probe and reconstructing endocardial surface electrograms and activation sequences during paced beats was previously demonstrated in the isolated canine left ventricle (LV). The objective of the present study was to develop and test a high-resolution, three-dimensional, endocardial electrophysiological imaging technique that simultaneously reconstructs endocardial surface electrograms and their corresponding activation sequences during normal and abnormal beats with the use of cavitary electrograms measured with a noncontact multielectrode probe in the intact canine LV. Methods and Results - A 128-electrode probe was inserted into the intact canine LV. Probe unipolar electrograms were simultaneously acquired during sinus, artificially paced, and spontaneous premature beats. Representative end electrograms were measured directly using eight needle electrodes (the 'gold standard'). A probe-cavity realistic, three-dimensional geometric model was constructed using two-dimensional epicardial echocardiography. Boundary element methods and numeric regularization were used to compute electrograms at 194 sites on the endocardium. In eight pacing protocols, computed endocardial electrograms correlated well with directly measured electrograms (r=.88). Corresponding activation times were also in agreement with those determined from measured endocardial electrograms (activation error, 4.7 ms). The earliest region of activation was invariably in the vicinity of the pacing needle (spatial error, 9.2 mm). Subsequently, the site of origin of ischemia-induced spontaneous ventricular premature beats and the ensuing sequence of depolarization was identified. Conclusions - Noncontact mapping provides realistic, three-dimensional electrophysiological images of the endocardium, on a beat-by-beat basis, that localize the sites of origin of premature beats and reconstruct their activation sequences.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine