Thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of high performance concrete at high temperatures

Bernhard A. Schrefler, Gabriel A. Khoury, Dariusz Gawin, Carmelo E. Majorana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


This paper presents the physical, mathematical and numerical models forming the main structure of the numerical analysis of the thermal, hydral and mechanical behaviour of normal, high-performance concrete (HPC) and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) structures subjected to heating. A fully coupled non-linear formulation is designed to predict the behaviour, and potential for spalling, of heated concrete structures for fire and nuclear reactor applications. The physical model is described in more detail, with emphasis being placed upon the real processes occurring in concrete during heating based on tests carried out in several major laboratories around Europe as part of the wider high temperature concrete (HITECO) research programme. A number of experimental and modelling advances are presented in this paper. The stress-strain behaviour of concrete in direct tension, determined experimentally, is input into the model. The hitherto unknown micro-structural, hydral and mechanical behaviour of HPC/UHPC were determined experimentally and the information is also built into the model. Two examples of computer simulations concerning experimental validation of the model, i.e. temperature and gas pressure development in a radiatively heated HPC wall and hydro-thermal and mechanical (damage) performance of a square HPC column during fire, are presented and discussed in the context of full scale fire tests done within the HITECO research programme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)787-819
Number of pages33
JournalEngineering Computations (Swansea, Wales)
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - 2002


  • Concrete
  • High temperature
  • Modelling
  • Numerical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Mechanics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Applied Mathematics


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