THELMA code analysis of bronze route Nb3Sn strand bending effect on Ic

P. L. Ribani, D. P. Boso, M. Lefik, Y. Nunoya, L. Savoldi Richard, B. A. Schrefler, R. Zanino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The THELMA (Thermal-Hydraulic-ELectro-MAgnetic) code has been developed with the aim of simulating the main aspects of superconductors to be used in the coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), An application of the code is presented here, where THELMA is used to simulate a single strand by considering, as cable elements, groups of superconducting (SC) filaments and the corresponding portion of the resistive matrix. This approach is used to reproduce the voltage-current characteristic of a Nb3Sn bronze route strand when subject to a bending mechanical load. Attention is focused particularly on the effect of the applied mechanical load on the critical current, which is considered a relevant item in the explanation of the degradation of the coil performance observed in several ITER Model and Insert Coil experiments. The longitudinal strain of the SC filaments is calculated by means of a composite beam model of the strand, taking into account the nonlinear, temperature-dependent material characteristics of the components. The whole load history is simulated, computing first the thermal strain due to cool-down, and then the mechanical strain due to the bending at 4.2 K.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1642983
Pages (from-to)860-863
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Bending strain
  • Electromagnetic analysis
  • Superconducting cables
  • Superconducting magnets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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