The Wildervanck syndrome consists of the Klippel Feil deformity of the spine, eyeball retraction, lateral gaze weakness, and hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss, as well as a more frequently occurring sensorineural hearing loss, is caused by dysplasia of the inner ear. Typically, polytomograms demonstrate a bulbous vestibule and dilated lateral semicircular canals with basilar impression of the skull. The Duane's eyeball retraction phenomenon completes the syndrome; this may be explained either by misdirected innervation of the extraocular muscles or by atrophy or fibrosis of the lateral rectus muscles.
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