The untold history of planning in orthognathic surgery: a narrative review from the beginning to virtual surgical simulation

M. D.A. Barretto, F. Melhem-Elias, M. C.Z. Deboni

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

We aimed to produce a narrative review of planning orthognathic surgery, chronologically. Also, to present flaws of methods and the future of orthognathic surgery planning. The search was carried out mainly in PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Also was complemented by manual search in reference lists from identified studies and in grey literature. The first orthognathic surgery was reported in 1849, and it took more than a century for the development of the traditional orthognathic 2D planning. Besides the advances, surgeons observed failures and lacks on 2D method in representing with reliability the facial and maxillary tridimensional structure (3D). With technological developments in 90s and 2000s, methodological improvements were granted, and the 3D protocol was created. The CASS and Charlotte protocols were the earliest 3D planning protocols conceived. Since then, some steps were simplified, and new technologies are being developed and added to create a more reliable and precise way of planning orthognathic surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e251-e259
JournalJournal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume123
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Computerized tomography
  • Diagnosis
  • Maxillofacial surgery
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Realistic imaging
  • Virtual surgery planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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