The spectrum of venous anomalies associated with atretic parietal cephaloceles: A literature review

Serra Sencer, Mohamed M. Arnaout, Hosam Al-Jehani, Zahraa A. Alsubaihawi, Zahraa F. Al-Sharshahi, Samer S. Hoz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Parietal atretic cephalocele (PAC) is a small, subscalp lesion with underlying extracranial meningeal, neural, and glial tissues. In this paper, we analyze the related literature on the continuum of PAC-Associated venous anomalies and report an exemplary case. Methods: The PubMed Medline database was searched using the following search algorithm: (Atretic encephalocele) OR (Rudimentary meningocele,) OR (Atypical meningocele) OR (Meningocele manqué) OR (Meningeal heterotopia). Only papers detailing the venous anomalies associated with PACs have been included. Results: A total of 30 papers in our search documented PAC-Associated venous abnormalities. The overall number of cases reported was 68 (including our exemplary case). The most frequently identified associated venous anomaly was the presence of a "fenestrated superior sagittal sinus" recorded in 48.5% of cases (n = 33), followed closely by "persistent falcine sinus" in 47% (n = 32) and vertical embryonic positioning of the straight sinus (SS) in 44% (n = 30). The complete absence of a SS was reported in 39.7% (n = 27) and various anomalies of the Galenic system were reported in 26.8% of cases (n = 12). Conclusion: Although benign in nature, PACs are often a marker for the presence of complex and variable cerebral venous malformations, requiring extensive preoperative imaging workup for both the superficial and deep venous systems to obtain an accurate understanding of the anatomy of the venous system and guide surgical planning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSurgical Neurology International
StatePublished - 2021


  • Atretic cephalocele
  • Parietal
  • Venous anomalies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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