The role of payload hydrophobicity in nanotherapeutic pharmacokinetics

Povilas Norvaisas, Arturas Ziemys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Although drug delivery with nanovectors is regarded as one of the paradigm-shifting advances in modern medicine, the compatibility and performance of drug-vector formulations have not been systematically studied in terms of their physicochemistry and pharmacokinetics (PKs). The drug delivery systems (DDSs), currently available in clinics or trials, were analyzed based on hydrophobicity and anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification of drug payloads. Four major types of DDSs differentiated based on DDS structure and drug hydrophobicity, where payload hydrophobicity decreased: micelles, serum albumin, liposome membrane, and liposome interior. A strong relationship between the increase in half-life in DDS formulation and drug hydrophobicity was found with up to 200-fold greater increase for hydrophilic drugs. The analysis results seemingly integrated PKs, ATC, and hydrophobicity to reinforce the development or optimization of drug delivery vectors and their formulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2147-2156
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • albumin
  • formulation
  • formulation vehicles
  • lipoproteins
  • liposomes
  • log P
  • micelles
  • nanoparticles
  • pharmacokinetics
  • physicochemical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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