The Role of Nanomedicine in Benign Gynecologic Disorders

Bethlehem A. Lulseged, Malini S. Ramaiyer, Rachel Michel, Eslam E. Saad, Bulent Ozpolat, Mostafa A. Borahay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Nanomedicine has revolutionized drug delivery in the last two decades. Nanoparticles appear to be a promising drug delivery platform in the treatment of various gynecological disorders including uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and menopause. Nanoparticles are tiny (mean size < 1000 nm), biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, safe, and relatively inexpensive materials commonly used in imaging and the drug delivery of various therapeutics, such as chemotherapeutics, small molecule inhibitors, immune mediators, protein peptides and non-coding RNA. We performed a literature review of published studies to examine the role of nanoparticles in treating uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, PCOS, and menopause. In uterine leiomyoma, nanoparticles containing 2-methoxyestradiole and simvastatin, promising uterine fibroid treatments, have been effective in significantly inhibiting tumor growth compared to controls in in vivo mouse models with patient-derived leiomyoma xenografts. Nanoparticles have also shown efficacy in delivering magnetic hyperthermia to ablate endometriotic tissue. Moreover, nanoparticles can be used to deliver hormones and have shown efficacy as a mechanism for transdermal hormone replacement therapy in individuals with menopause. In this review, we aim to summarize research findings and report the efficacy of nanoparticles and nanotherapeutics in the treatment of various benign gynecologic conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2024


  • endometriosis
  • menopause
  • nanomedicine
  • nanoparticles
  • PCOS
  • uterine leiomyoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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