Despite recent advances in oncologic therapy, an important proportion of patients with primary cancer will develop distant metastasis. The standard therapy for metastatic cancer is systemic therapy, which typically does not yield excellent response rates for most solid tumors. Data in the literature support the existence of a state of limited metastasis or oligometastasis. Favorable outcomes have been observed in selected patients with oligometastases that are treated with local ablative therapies, which include surgical extirpation, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and radiofrequency ablation. Lung and liver are the two most common sites of oligometastases considered for local ablative therapy and this Review will focus on the role of local therapy in oligometastases that arise in these organs.
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