The difference between the female and male immune response to COVID-19 infection, and infections in general, is multifactorial. The well-known determiners of the immune response, such as X and Y chromosomes, sex hormones, and microbiota, are functionally interconnected and influence each other in shaping the organism's immunity. We focus our commentary on the interplay between the genetic sex and mitochondria and how this may affect a sex-dependent immune response in COVID-19 infection. Realizing the existence of these interactions may help in designing novel methods or fine-tuning the existing and routine therapies to fight COVID-19 and other infections.
- Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy
- Melatonin/therapeutic use
- Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
- Sex Characteristics
- Sex Chromosomes/physiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy