The Rise in Immunotherapy and Associated Ocular Toxicities

Anam Mazharuddin, Dan Gombos, Nagham Al-Zubidi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have improved prognosis in advanced malignancies but may be associated with extensive ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that may be sight-threatening. Although ocular side effects account for 1% of total adverse events, they are becoming more commonplace as more people undergo treatment with ICI. This chapter aims to identify the presentation, characteristics, and management of ocular irAEs. Prompt recognition and management of ocular irAEs can improve patient care and outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGlobal Perspectives in Ocular Oncology
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783031082504
ISBN (Print)9783031082498
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Checkpoint immunotherapy
  • CTLA-4 inhibitors
  • Immune-related adverse events
  • Ocular oncology
  • PD1
  • PDL-1
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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