The Rise and Fall of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Throughout the United States

Alexander M. Beschloss, Christina M. Dicindio, Joseph S. Lombardi, Jamal N. Shillingford, Joseph L. Laratta, Brendan Holderread, Phillip Louie, Andrew J. Pugely, Zeeshan Sardar, Amrit S. Khalsa, Vincent M. Arlet, Comron Saifi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Study Design: Retrospective Database Study. Objective: Investigate utilization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) between 2004 and 2014. Summary of Background Data: The utilization, particularly off-label utilization, of BMP-2 has been controversial and debated in the literature. Given the concerns regarding cancer and potential complications, the risk benefit profile of BMP must be weighed with each surgical case. The debate regarding the costs and potential side effects of BMP-2 compared with autologous iliac crest bone harvest has continued. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for the use of BMP-2 (ICD-9-CM 84.52) between 2004 and 2014 across 44 states. The NIS database represents a 20% sample of discharges, weighted to provide national estimates. BMP-2 utilization rates in spine surgery fusion procedures were calculated as a fraction of the total number of thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal fusion surgeries performed each year. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, BMP-2 was utilized in 927,275 spinal fusion surgeries. In 2004, BMP-2 was utilized in 28.3% of all cases (N=48,613). The relative use of BMP-2 in spine fusion surgeries peaked in 2008 at 47.0% (N=112,180). Since then, it has continued to steadily decline with an endpoint of 23.6% of cases in 2014 (N=60,863). Conclusions: Throughout the United States, the utilization of BMP-2 in thoracolumbar fusion surgeries increased from 28.3% to 47.0% between 2004 and 2008. However, from 2008 to 2014, the utilization of BMP-2 in thoracolumbar spine fusion surgeries decreased significantly from 47.0% to 23.4%. While this study provides information on the utilization of BMP-2 for the entire United States over an 11-year period, further research is needed to the determine the factors affecting these trends.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-269
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Spine Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • BMP
  • BMP-2
  • fusion
  • spine
  • spine fusion surgery
  • utilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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