OBJECTIVE: Owing to advances in transplant science, increasing numbers of patients are receiving solid organ transplantation. New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) frequently develops in transplant patients and requires acute and often ongoing management of hyperglycemia. The metabolic derangements of NODAT are similar to those of classic type 2 diabetes, and treatment has typically followed diabetes standards of care. Best practices for NODAT management remain to be developed.
METHODS: The mechanistic suitability of incretins to treat NODAT pathogenesis has been hitherto underappreciated. This review details the specific mechanistic value of incretins in patients with immunosuppression-associated hyperglycemia.
RESULTS: Corticosteroids have long been known to exert their effects on glucose metabolism by decreasing glucose utilization and enhancing hepatic gluconeogenesis. Corticosteroids also significantly and directly reduce insulin secretion, as do calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), another commonly used group of immunosuppressive drugs that cause hyperglycemia and NODAT. The ability of incretins to counteract immunosuppressant-induced disruptions in insulin secretion suggest that the insulinotropic, glucagonostatic, and glucose-lowering actions of incretins are well suited to treat immunosuppressant-induced hyperglycemia in NODAT. Additional benefits of incretins include decreased glucagon levels and improved insulin resistance. In the case of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, weight loss is another benefit, countering the weight gain that is a common consequence of both hyperglycemia and transplantation. These benefits make incretins very attractive and deserving of more investigation.
CONCLUSION: Among diabetes treatment options, incretin therapies uniquely counteract immunosuppressant drugs' interference with insulin secretion. We propose an incretin-based treatment paradigm for NODAT management.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism