The many shades of macrophages in regulating transplant outcome

Shuqiu Chen, Fadi G. Lakkis, Xian C. Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The shift of emphasis from short-term to long-term graft outcomes has led to renewed interests in how the innate immune cells regulate transplant survival, an area that is traditionally dominated by T cells in the adaptive system. This shift is driven largely by the limited efficacy of current immunosuppression protocols which primarily target T cells in preventing chronic graft loss, as well as by the rapid advance of basic sciences in the realm of innate immunity. In fact, the innate immune cells have emerged as key players in the allograft response in various models, contributing to both graft rejection and graft acceptance. Here, we focus on the macrophages, highlighting their diversity, plasticity and emerging features in transplant models, as well as recent developments in our studies of diverse subsets of macrophages. We also discuss challenges, unsolved questions, and emerging approaches in therapeutically modulating macrophages in further improvement of transplant outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104064
JournalCellular Immunology
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Chronic rejection
  • Inflammation
  • Innate immunity
  • Macrophages
  • Transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology


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