The factor structure of major depression symptoms: A test of four competing models using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9

Jon D. Elhai, Ateka A. Contractor, Marijo Tamburrino, Thomas H. Fine, Marta R. Prescott, Edwin Shirley, Phillip K. Chan, Renee Slembarski, Israel Liberzon, Sandro Galea, Joseph R. Calabrese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Little research has examined the underlying symptom structure of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms based on DSM-IV criteria. Our aim was to analyze the symptom structure of major depression, using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The PHQ-9 was administered to a sample of 2615 Army National Guard soldiers from Ohio. A one-factor model of depression and three separate two-factor models previously established in the literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results demonstrated greater support for the two-factor models of depression than for the one-factor model. The best fitting model was the two-factor model of somatic and non-somatic symptoms supported previously by Krause et al. (2010) and Richardson and Richards (2008). Implications for understanding the components and mechanisms of MDD are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-173
Number of pages5
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume199
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 30 2012

Keywords

  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Depression
  • Military veterans
  • Patient Health Questionnaire-9

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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