The evolution and future of minimalism in neurological surgery

Charles Y. Liu, Michael Y. Wang, Michael L.J. Apuzzo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Introduction: The evolution of the field of neurological surgery has been marked by a progressive minimalism. This has been evident in the development of an entire arsenal of modern neurosurgical enterprises, including microneurosurgery, neuroendoscopy, stereotactic neurosurgery, endovascular techniques, radiosurgical systems, intraoperative and navigational devices, and in the last decade, cellular and molecular adjuvants. Aims: In addition to reviewing the major developments and paradigm shifts in the cyclic reinvention of the field as it currently stands,this paper attempts to identify forces and developments that are likely to fuel the irresistible escalation of minimalism into the future. These forces include discoveries in computational science, imaging, molecular science, biomedical engineering, and information processing as they relate to the theme of minimalism. Discussion: These areas are explaine d in the light of future possibilities offered by the emerging field of nanotechnology with molecular engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)783-789
Number of pages7
JournalChild's Nervous System
Issue number11-12
StatePublished - Nov 2004


  • Futurism
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoneurosurgery
  • Nanotechnology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Operative minimalism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology


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