The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

Daniel J. Gould, Forrest S. Roth, Charles N. Soparkar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Background: Little is written in the plastic surgery literature about thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), a condition that is separate from Graves-Basedow disease and may not be accompanied by hyperthyroidism. Many patients with this disease frequently seek periocular aesthetic reconstruction prior to medical workup. Methods: This study presents a comprehensive review of the literature surrounding TAO in order to better understand the prevalence, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and appropriate management of TAO. Results: TAO is frequently under- or misdiagnosed by health-care providers. Patients seeking blepharoplasty or other oculoplastic procedures may have underlying TAO, and the prevalence of TAO in patients who have had a blepharoplasty is approximately 3%. This condition occurs five times more often in women than in men. As a product of the relatively high prevalence of this disease and its underdiagnosis, TAO patients may experience perioperative and late complications due to surgery. Conclusion: Blepharoplasties performed on TAO patients must be undertaken with care and insight to avoid cosmetic and functional complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)638-648
Number of pages11
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2012


  • Blepharoplasty
  • Graves-Basedow disease
  • Oculoplastics
  • Thyroid eye disease
  • Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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