Background: Little is written in the plastic surgery literature about thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), a condition that is separate from Graves-Basedow disease and may not be accompanied by hyperthyroidism. Many patients with this disease frequently seek periocular aesthetic reconstruction prior to medical workup. Methods: This study presents a comprehensive review of the literature surrounding TAO in order to better understand the prevalence, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and appropriate management of TAO. Results: TAO is frequently under- or misdiagnosed by health-care providers. Patients seeking blepharoplasty or other oculoplastic procedures may have underlying TAO, and the prevalence of TAO in patients who have had a blepharoplasty is approximately 3%. This condition occurs five times more often in women than in men. As a product of the relatively high prevalence of this disease and its underdiagnosis, TAO patients may experience perioperative and late complications due to surgery. Conclusion: Blepharoplasties performed on TAO patients must be undertaken with care and insight to avoid cosmetic and functional complications.
- Graves-Basedow disease
- Thyroid eye disease
- Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas