Jeffrey S. Heier, Rishi P. Singh, Charles C. Wykoff, Karl G. Csaky, Timothy Y.Y. Lai, Anat Loewenstein, Patricio G. Schlottmann, Liliana P. Paris, Peter D. Westenskow, Carlos Quezada-Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: To provide a concise overview for ophthalmologists and practicing retina specialists of available clinical evidence of manipulating the angiopoietin/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and endothelial growth factor-like domains (Tie) pathway and its potential as a therapeutic target in retinal vascular diseases. METHODS: A literature search for articles on the angiopoietin/Tie pathway and molecules targeting this pathway that have reached Phase 2 or 3 trials was undertaken on PubMed, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting abstracts (2014-2019), and databases. Additional information on identified pipeline drugs was obtained from publicly available information on company websites. RESULTS: The PubMed and Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting abstract search yielded 462 results, of which 251 publications not relevant to the scope of the review were excluded. Of the 141 trials related to the angiopoietin/Tie pathway on, seven trials focusing on diseases covered in this review were selected. Vision/anatomic outcomes from key clinical trials on molecules targeting the angiopoietin/Tie pathway in patients with retinal vascular diseases are discussed. CONCLUSION: Initial clinical evidence suggests a potential benefit of targeting the angiopoietin/Tie pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor-A over anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-A monotherapy alone, in part due to of the synergistic nature of the pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalRetina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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