The anatomical aspects of minimally invasive cardiac valve operations

Michael J. Reardon, Lori D. Conklin, Ron Philo, George V. Letsou, Hazim J. Safi, Raphael Espada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Cadaveric dissections were carried out to examine the relationship of the cardiac valve structures to the surface anatomy of the chest as it relates to our approaches to minimally invasive valvular operations. The techniques of upper hemisternotomy and lower hemisternotomy as used at our institution are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-268
Number of pages3
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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