Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTs), is an effective and widely recommended treatment for tuberculosis (TB). The antibiotics used in DOTs, are immunotoxic and impair effector T cells, increasing the risk of re-infections and reactivation. Multiple reports suggest that addition of immune-modulators along with antibiotics improves the effectiveness of TB treatment. Therefore, drugs with both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties are desirable. N1-(Adamantan-2-yl)-N2-[(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl]ethane-1,2-diamine (SQ109) is an asymmetric diamine derivative of adamantane, that targets Mycobacterial membrane protein Large 3 (MmpL3). SQ109 dissipates the transmembrane electrochemical proton-gradient necessary for cell-wall biosynthesis and bacterial activity. Here, we examined the effects of SQ109 on host-immune responses using a murine TB model. Our results suggest the pro-inflammatory nature of SQ109, which instigates M1-macrophage polarization and induces protective pro-inflammatory cytokines through the p38-MAPK pathway. SQ109 also promotes Th1 and Th17-immune responses that inhibit the bacillary burden in a murine model of TB. These findings put forth SQ109 as a potential-adjunct to TB antibiotic therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)