The protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is mediated by T helper type-1 (Th1) cells. Infection of BALB/c mice with M. tuberculosis downregulates expression of a Th1-specific costimulatory molecule, M150, on the surface of infected macrophages. The proliferation of Th cells and Th1-cytokine production by these cells are higher in case of M. tuberculosis antigen presentation by uninfected macrophages than by infected macrophages. The difference in inducing interleukin(IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion is abolished by providing bystander costimulation through M150 on liposomes.
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