Technology Implementation for Mental Health End Users: A Model to Guide Digital Transformation for Inpatient Mental Health Professionals

Jessa Lin Westheimer, Nidal Moukaddam, Jan A. Lindsay, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Bijan Najafi, Peter A. Iacobelli, Robert J. Boland, Michelle A. Patriquin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Digital transformation is the adoption of digital technologies by an entity in an effort to increase operational efficiency. In mental health care, digital transformation entails technology implementation to improve the quality of care and mental health outcomes. Most psychiatric hospitals rely heavily on “high-touch” interventions or those that require in-person, face-to-face interaction with the patient. Those that are exploring digital mental health care interventions, particularly for outpatient care, often copiously commit to the “high-tech” model, losing the crucial human element. The process of digital transformation, especially within acute psychiatric treatment settings, is in its infancy. Existing implementation models outline the development of patient-facing treatment interventions within the primary care system; however, to our knowledge, there is no proposed or established model for implementing a new provider-facing ministration tool within an acute inpatient psychiatric setting. Solving the complex challenges within mental health care demands that new mental health technology is developed in concert with a use protocol by and for the inpatient mental health professional (IMHP; the end user), allowing the “high-touch” to inform the “high-tech” and vice versa. Therefore, in this viewpoint article, we propose the Technology Implementation for Mental-Health End-Users framework, which outlines the process for developing a prototype of an IMHP-facing digital intervention tool in parallel with a protocol for the IMHP end user to deliver the intervention. By balancing the design of the digital mental health care intervention tool with IMHP end user resource development, we can significantly improve mental health outcomes and pioneer digital transformation nationwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere40429
Pages (from-to)e40429
JournalJMIR Mental Health
StatePublished - 2023


  • digital transformation
  • implementation
  • implementation science
  • innovation
  • mental health
  • technology implementation
  • user acceptability
  • user-centered design
  • wearables

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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